Skin

Information Storage and Processing as Part of Pattern Formation, Photoreception, Thermoreception, and Mechanoreception of the Integument

Biological information storage and processing form the foundation for understanding organisms’ operation in nature. In this report, we examine the signaling and mathematical components of the skin from a portfolio of animals to illustrate their significance in governing the biomolecular and structural components in which they are intertwined. Particularly, we…

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Biomolecular Factors for Immunity, Color Change, and Mechanical Strength of the Integument

The skin is a highly complex organ. It contains many components which allow it to fulfil its functions. These components include various cells and proteins which are regulated by intricate biological pathways. Across different organisms, there is a large variety of these components, which exist at several levels of complexity and…

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Healing, Mechanical Loading, and Water-harvesting with Integument Structures and their Biomimetic Applications

This report focuses on the structures that enable healing, mechanical loading, and water-harvesting of the integument (i.e., skin, feathers, hair, scales, etc.). By examining the morphologies that allow for these functions, and detailing their interrelation, we develop a basis for understanding how an organism’s design is related to its operation.…

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