Thermoregulation

Biological Design for Lungs and Gills: Biomolecular and Chemical Engineering

This report describes two of the most important gas exchangers for all living animals: lungs and gills. Throughout the research, cutaneous respiration will also be explained, however, the most efficient oxygen diffusing rates are obtained through lungs and gills, which are our main concern. The purpose of this biological design…

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Hypotheses for the Tooth Eruption Mechanism

Tooth eruption, the movement of the tooth germ from its non-functional position in the alveolar processes to its final function position in the oral cavity, is a little-known mechanism despite being highly documented. Many theories try to explain the mechanism of the eruption of the tooth; however, none succeed to…

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Molecular Phenomena in Flipper Formation and Limits of Miniaturization

The goal of the following report is to explore the intricacies of marine animals’ flippers at a molecular level. Three main topics will be addressed throughout the analysis: the phenomena underlying the formation of flippers from embryos, the molecular processes involved in the fin-to-limb transition from fish to tetrapods, and the…

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The Biochemical Basis for Olfaction

Often, only the sense of sight and hearing are considered essential to understanding the world in which humans live in. In practice, however, the sense of smell, or olfaction, plays an important role in everyday tasks that are taken for granted. For example, the ability to taste food is highly…

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Biomolecular Factors for Immunity, Color Change, and Mechanical Strength of the Integument

The skin is a highly complex organ. It contains many components which allow it to fulfil its functions. These components include various cells and proteins which are regulated by intricate biological pathways. Across different organisms, there is a large variety of these components, which exist at several levels of complexity and…

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The Colorful Chemistry of Oxygen Carriers in Blood

This essay focuses on different types of oxygen carriers in the blood. In “The Well-Kept Secrets of Blood: The Mechanism of a Vital Fluid”, an examination of blood properties was made with a special introduction to physiological aspects of erythrocytes (Benchetrite et al., 2020). Indeed, erythrocytes are a key component…

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Healing, Mechanical Loading, and Water-harvesting with Integument Structures and their Biomimetic Applications

This report focuses on the structures that enable healing, mechanical loading, and water-harvesting of the integument (i.e., skin, feathers, hair, scales, etc.). By examining the morphologies that allow for these functions, and detailing their interrelation, we develop a basis for understanding how an organism’s design is related to its operation.…

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The Well-kept Secrets of Blood: The Mechanism of a Vital Fluid

This essay will explore blood but will more specifically approach its viscoelasticity to better understand the circulation through the body that is responsible for many important functions. Unlike most common fluids, such as water, blood has non-Newtonian properties and shear-thinning properties that result in the variation of its viscosity under…

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Physics of Avian Beak Design

Many are familiar with the idea that birds originally evolved from dinosaurs, given their common feature of plumage. For these prehistoric beasts to emerge as the animals that swim, waddle and fly today, there was a great deal of evolution that had to take place. One of the most notable…

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Functions of the Gut through the Perspective of Biological Mechanics

The main functions of the gut are to digest food, absorb nutrients, and to eliminate waste. These functions vary between species, causing different guts to have different structures. Natural selection has determined the structure of different guts by what the animal consumes, where they live, and how other parts of…

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The Nose: An Examination and Comparison of the Turbinate Structures of Aquatic Animals, Terrestrial Caniformia, and Humans

In recent years, researchers have studied biological systems with an engineering perspective, and have found that structures in nature are designed to respond to a specific function. The nose is one example of how evolution has formed a diversity of shapes for the same structure to accommodate the species’ needs…

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