Membranes and Filters

The Biomolecular Design of the Eye

In “The Optical Properties of Camera Eyes” the optical properties of the camera-type eye and how light can properly converge light onto the retina to endow an organism with a clear picture of its surroundings were discussed (Gedik et al., 2020). To summarize, the camera eye of many animal species…

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The Design of the Spine

This paper discusses the design of the spine in bison and how these animals support their heads without tiring quickly. Furthermore, the purposes of spinal modeling are discussed along with their real-life applications. The spine is crucial to the function of all vertebrates as it is allows movement, and stabilizes…

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Cephalopods and their Beak

From ants to elephants — and passing through sea cucumbers, adaptations in the animal kingdom are majestically diverse. For instance, means of travel include legs, more legs, wings, flippers and suction cups. Bodies can be scaled, slimy, furry, feathered, spiky, or armored and the list goes on. Basic feeding can…

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Information Storage and Processing as Part of Pattern Formation, Photoreception, Thermoreception, and Mechanoreception of the Integument

Biological information storage and processing form the foundation for understanding organisms’ operation in nature. In this report, we examine the signaling and mathematical components of the skin from a portfolio of animals to illustrate their significance in governing the biomolecular and structural components in which they are intertwined. Particularly, we…

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Information Signaling and Processing in the Vascular System

This report explores the notions of design and function of the vascular system as products of evolutionary processes in the framework of information storage and processing. The vascular system serves as a transportation system, delivering oxygen and sugars to other organs. The brain is the main site of information processing…

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The Heart: Information and Storage Processing

We start by providing a general overview of the cardiac conduction system, beginning with the circuit the electric signal takes through the heart and then focusing in on specific cells. Such a complex cardiac conduction system is only fully present in mammals. We will then cover the signal conduction process…

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