Flexibility vs. Elasticity vs. Stiffness

Bioinformatics and Sensory Function of Mammalian Fur: An Analysis of Coat Patterning, Whiskers, and Trigger Hairs

The Turing pattern, which is further explained in the paper, is an observed pattern in natural systems ranging from cheetah print to coral growth. Alan Turing proposed a mathematical model to describe pattern formation based on reaction and diffusion rates of morphogens, and this model holds true for a vast…

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Design, Purpose and Specificity of the Narwhal’s Tusk

The narwhal’s tusk is a fascinating organ as it has the composition of a tooth but very different properties, in particular its ability to grow in a straight line. To understand the design mechanism allowing this particular feature, we will first present the composition, function and properties of the tusk.…

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How Computers and Robotics Helped Us Understand Flippers

The advancement of technology has allowed researchers to develop efficient software which aids in the recognition of animals based on their flippers, conduct experiments to further examine the parameters which define the efficacy of these limbs, and manufacture robots which simulate marine animals and their flippers to deepen the understanding…

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An Analysis of Sensors and Systems of Artificial Noses

In the past couple decades, the field of artificial organs has seen immense progress, such as more comfortable prosthetic limbs and artificial livers. However, in recent years, a need for a technology able to detect the presence of molecules that the human nose cannot has emerged, leading to the creation…

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Closed Kinematic Chains: A New Perspective and Analysis of Biological Ability

Kinematic chains are wonderful phenomena that appear in biological organisms. They involve looped segments connected by joints and these loops are either open or closed. In a closed system, movement from any particular joint will generate movement at all other joints in a specific manner, as these joints cannot move…

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Molecular Design of the Spine and Spinal Cord

This paper discusses the molecular aspects of the spine and the spinal cord. It explores the purpose of the spinal cord and how it operates in the body. The report then investigates how evolution has changed the spine and spinal cord of numerous species such as different reptiles, fish, and…

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