Density, Surface Tension and Surfactant

Bioinformatics and Sensory Function of Mammalian Fur: An Analysis of Coat Patterning, Whiskers, and Trigger Hairs

The Turing pattern, which is further explained in the paper, is an observed pattern in natural systems ranging from cheetah print to coral growth. Alan Turing proposed a mathematical model to describe pattern formation based on reaction and diffusion rates of morphogens, and this model holds true for a vast…

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Information Storage and Processing as Part of Pattern Formation, Photoreception, Thermoreception, and Mechanoreception of the Integument

Biological information storage and processing form the foundation for understanding organisms’ operation in nature. In this report, we examine the signaling and mathematical components of the skin from a portfolio of animals to illustrate their significance in governing the biomolecular and structural components in which they are intertwined. Particularly, we…

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Biological Design for Lungs and Gills: Information and Storage Processing

This report describes two of the most important gas exchangers for all living animals: lungs and gills. Throughout the research, cutaneous respiration will also be explained; however, the most efficient oxygen diffusion rates are obtained through lungs and gills, which are our main concern. The purpose of this biological design…

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Biological Design for Lungs and Gills: Biomolecular and Chemical Engineering

This report describes two of the most important gas exchangers for all living animals: lungs and gills. Throughout the research, cutaneous respiration will also be explained, however, the most efficient oxygen diffusing rates are obtained through lungs and gills, which are our main concern. The purpose of this biological design…

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Marvels of Eggshell Pigmentation: Why Eggshells Vary so Greatly in Color and Pattern

In contrast to their closest modern relatives, the family Crocodylinae, avian eggs dramatically range in egg size, shape and color. Primarily for protection from predators, many bird species have evolved unique phenotypes including colored shell markings that represent a novel development in the phylum Chordata’s gene pool. Selection for egg…

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Mechanical and Material Design Principles of the Avian Egg Shell

The design of the avian egg presents intricacies ranging from its mechanically durable architecture to its composition of bacterial protective materials. Characteristics such as the function, architecture, operation, and eggshell vulnerabilities are presented to outline the success of embryo survival and chick pipping. Protection against various external conditions and the…

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