Closed Sytems vs. Heat Transfer

Bioinformatics and Sensory Function of Mammalian Fur: An Analysis of Coat Patterning, Whiskers, and Trigger Hairs

The Turing pattern, which is further explained in the paper, is an observed pattern in natural systems ranging from cheetah print to coral growth. Alan Turing proposed a mathematical model to describe pattern formation based on reaction and diffusion rates of morphogens, and this model holds true for a vast…

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Closed Kinematic Chains: A New Perspective and Analysis of Biological Ability

Kinematic chains are wonderful phenomena that appear in biological organisms. They involve looped segments connected by joints and these loops are either open or closed. In a closed system, movement from any particular joint will generate movement at all other joints in a specific manner, as these joints cannot move…

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Molecular Design of the Spine and Spinal Cord

This paper discusses the molecular aspects of the spine and the spinal cord. It explores the purpose of the spinal cord and how it operates in the body. The report then investigates how evolution has changed the spine and spinal cord of numerous species such as different reptiles, fish, and…

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Healing, Mechanical Loading, and Water-harvesting with Integument Structures and their Biomimetic Applications

This report focuses on the structures that enable healing, mechanical loading, and water-harvesting of the integument (i.e., skin, feathers, hair, scales, etc.). By examining the morphologies that allow for these functions, and detailing their interrelation, we develop a basis for understanding how an organism’s design is related to its operation.…

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The Heart: A Mechanical Perspective

The heart, present in almost all fauna, sometimes more than once in an organism (e.g., octopi possess three hearts) is connected to the rest of the body through a complex circulatory system which allows it to pump blood across the whole body in a coordinated, primarily automated manner, by contracting…

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Comparative Analysis of Biomechanical Properties of Mammalian Fur

The presence of hair, or rather keratin structures in nature is abundant. A wide range of animals have keratin structures present in their physiology that serve diverse and varied purposes. Any animal’s fur is optimized for their environment, which leads to the wide range of keratin structures observed in nature. …

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