Closed Kinematic Chains and CKC Machines

Cephalopods and their Beak

From ants to elephants — and passing through sea cucumbers, adaptations in the animal kingdom are majestically diverse. For instance, means of travel include legs, more legs, wings, flippers and suction cups. Bodies can be scaled, slimy, furry, feathered, spiky, or armored and the list goes on. Basic feeding can…

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How Computers and Robotics Helped Us Understand Flippers

The advancement of technology has allowed researchers to develop efficient software which aids in the recognition of animals based on their flippers, conduct experiments to further examine the parameters which define the efficacy of these limbs, and manufacture robots which simulate marine animals and their flippers to deepen the understanding…

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Closed Kinematic Chains: A New Perspective and Analysis of Biological Ability

Kinematic chains are wonderful phenomena that appear in biological organisms. They involve looped segments connected by joints and these loops are either open or closed. In a closed system, movement from any particular joint will generate movement at all other joints in a specific manner, as these joints cannot move…

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Physics of Avian Beak Design

Many are familiar with the idea that birds originally evolved from dinosaurs, given their common feature of plumage. For these prehistoric beasts to emerge as the animals that swim, waddle and fly today, there was a great deal of evolution that had to take place. One of the most notable…

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