Layering and High Volume-to-Surface Ratio

Molecular and Histological Structures of Generic Mammalian Hair and Fur

Keratin structures are found throughout the animal world and can be found in diverse forms with varying functions. Hair has evolved to fit the needs of animals in their respective environments and thus has resulted in the range of keratin structures that can be seen in nature, from porcupine quills…

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The Biochemical Basis for Olfaction

Often, only the sense of sight and hearing are considered essential to understanding the world in which humans live in. In practice, however, the sense of smell, or olfaction, plays an important role in everyday tasks that are taken for granted. For example, the ability to taste food is highly…

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Rodent Adaptations to Ever-growing Teeth

Rodents have ever-growing incisors as a result of their chew-intensive diets. The potential consequences of this growth are numerous and can cause serious diseases for these animals. To avoid these outcomes, the structures and mechanisms involved in the function of nutrition must adapt to this trait. Therefore, the incisors are…

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Functions of the Gut through the Perspective of Biological Mechanics

The main functions of the gut are to digest food, absorb nutrients, and to eliminate waste. These functions vary between species, causing different guts to have different structures. Natural selection has determined the structure of different guts by what the animal consumes, where they live, and how other parts of…

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The Nose: An Examination and Comparison of the Turbinate Structures of Aquatic Animals, Terrestrial Caniformia, and Humans

In recent years, researchers have studied biological systems with an engineering perspective, and have found that structures in nature are designed to respond to a specific function. The nose is one example of how evolution has formed a diversity of shapes for the same structure to accommodate the species’ needs…

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