Hierarchy vs. Heterarchy

Design, Purpose and Specificity of the Narwhal’s Tusk

The narwhal’s tusk is a fascinating organ as it has the composition of a tooth but very different properties, in particular its ability to grow in a straight line. To understand the design mechanism allowing this particular feature, we will first present the composition, function and properties of the tusk.…

Read More »

Closed Kinematic Chains: A New Perspective and Analysis of Biological Ability

Kinematic chains are wonderful phenomena that appear in biological organisms. They involve looped segments connected by joints and these loops are either open or closed. In a closed system, movement from any particular joint will generate movement at all other joints in a specific manner, as these joints cannot move…

Read More »

Molecular and Histological Structures of Generic Mammalian Hair and Fur

Keratin structures are found throughout the animal world and can be found in diverse forms with varying functions. Hair has evolved to fit the needs of animals in their respective environments and thus has resulted in the range of keratin structures that can be seen in nature, from porcupine quills…

Read More »

Biomolecular Design of Veins and Arteries

The designs that enable arteries and veins to execute their functions are the products of evolutionary processes. This report explores this notion within the framework of biomolecular, cellular, and tissue engineering. Nitric oxide will be presented as an example of how blood vessels employ biochemicals to maintain homeostasis. Biosensor design…

Read More »

Feather Structure and Assembly

Birds are the only animals alive that have developed feathers, evolving from the scales of reptiles. Feathers are necessary for flight, insulation, and courtship displays. As a portrayal of the importance of feathers: for nearly two decades, researchers have been trying to imitate bird flight, a goal hindered by the…

Read More »

Comparative Analysis of the Biological Mechanics of Veins and Arteries in Animals

Outcomes of evolution, arteries and veins are dynamic vessels that serve to transport materials to the body’s tissues and organs. This is both enabled and facilitated by the designs that endow the devices with this ability. This report introduces the concept of design and function regarding blood vessels, analyzed within…

Read More »